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Salt Farm Worker

Labour Rights

Labour rights are codified by the International Labour Organization (ILO), which identifies the following "fundamental principles and rights at work":

- Freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining;
- Elimination of all forms of forced or compulsory labor;
- Effective abolition of child labor; and
- Elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.

Other ILO standards deal with conditions of work, including occupational safety and health, wages and hours of work.

Latest Research

UK MSA evaluation indicators

Our "FTSE 100: Modern Slavery Due Diligence" report takes a deep dive on the degree to which FTSE 100 constituents disclose their modern slavery due diligence pursuant to the UK Modern Slavery Act in 2021/2022. The average compliance with the Act's core requirements was 90.3%. Performance was lower in the Disclosure Conformance dimension, with an average score of 64.4%. When including the indicators as per the "Find It, Fix It, Prevent It" framework, across all 60 indicators the average score was 39%. Please find the raw data here.

We posit that the scores decrease primarily due to the increasing difficulty of mustering adequate responses to the risks encountered. The MSA presents companies with more than a blank sheet of paper: the Act envisions practices as “building blocks”: reporting to encourage assessment, risk assessment to find modern slavery, empirical findings to guide preventive and corrective action. Each dimension could be seen as more difficult to carry out than the previous one. It is easier to establish policies and processes than it is to remediate and prevent actual cases of modern slavery.  

Labour rights in the Fairtrade system

Fairtrade commissioned an independent study to examine the working and living conditions of workers, including hired labourers, in smallholder settings for cocoa production in West Africa and banana production in Latin America and the Caribbean that are part of Fairtrade certified Small-scale Producer Organisations (SPOs).

This research involved a mapping and contextual analysis of the ature and types of labour engaged in SPOs to understand on-the-ground labour realities and challenges, and make concrete proposals to improve access to workers’ rights and wellbeing.

On the landing page, Fairtrade made public the 11-page executive summary of the full report. Fairtrade also published a Policy Briefing by the authors, and Fairtrade’s Management Response. 

UK MSA evaluation indicators 2019

Our indicators of corporate performance under the UK MSA underwent a review and public consultation in 2020.  Please see here the expanded set of 67 indicators. 

2nd benchmarking of global governance RE 100 Index 

The Global Governance Real Estate (RE) 100 Index ranks the compliance and conformance with the UK Modern Slavery Act (MSA) and good practice in human rights of London’s largest commercial landlords by square foot.

As a group, the 2019 Global Governance RE 100’s average combined score was 39%. 


The 2018/19 RE 100 league table was commissioned by the Global Governance Research Fund (GGRF).

2nd benchmarking of global governance FTSE 100 Index 

Our second FTSE 100 MSA Benchmark shows year-on-year improvements in Modern Slavery statements by 87% of the 24 companies that had a new statement in 2019. Yet more work lies ahead as the average combined score is 48% (a cumulative score comprising legal compliance, legal conformance, and good practice). For details, check out the new League Table and download scorecards.

​For the press release, click here, and  here a thoughtful article in Edie by Sarah George.

​The 2018/19 FTSE 100 league table was commissioned by the Global Governance Research Fund (GGRF).

Anti-slavery actions by Great Britain's FTSE 100 and Real Estate 100 companies - 2018

Great Britain's FTSE 100 stock index makes up 80% of the public companies' market capitalisation in the country. Our second Modern Slavery Act (MSA) benchmarking study therefore hones in on these companies, as well as the top 100 real estate holders/developers in Great Britain. Even amongst the well-heeled, legal compliance gaps abound. Yet the study also reveals robust anti-slavery programs, identifying their nuts and bolts. Click here for the reportA big thank you to Sustain Worldwide for facilitating this work through the Global Governance Research Fund!

UK MSA Benchmarking Study -2017/18

Having analyzed the disclosure performance and anti-slavery good practice of a representative sample of 6,501 UK-registered organizations subject to the UK Modern Slavery Act, we are pleased to share our macro- and micro-level findings in our report entitled: "Corporate Compliance with the UK Modern Slavery Act – 2017/18".

Labor Grievance Mechanism Chapter

As worker-level grievance mechanisms are the ultimate form of quality control on the conduct of fair and productive labor operations, DI's Jesse Hudson and co-author Mark Winters were thrilled to author an Ethical Trading Initiative-commissioned paper "NGO Leadership in Grievance Mechanisms and Access to Remedy in Global Supply Chains" and to present it on Nov. 30, 2017 in Geneva. It explores the roles of NGOs in shaping and operating effective grievance mechanisms, takes a deep-dive into two such mechanisms led by Amader Kotha and Issara Institute, and explores current issues.

CA-TISCA Benchmarking Study

For 2016, DI evaluated private sector compliance with California Transparency in Supply Chains Act of 2010 (SB 657):  

Corporate liabilities for modern-day slavery in supply and service chains: A transnational framework

This analysis investigates potential liabilities transnational companies face vis-a-vis modern slavery in supply and service chains. Here the study's report.


DI's Chris Bayer headed the development of a B2B Anti-Slavery Reporting Template.  Commissioned by iPoint, the electronic Labor Rights Template (eLRT), is a free, open-access, Excel-based, business-to-business (B2B) reporting tool designed to support companies in their compliance with global human trafficking and modern-day slavery legislation. Here the press release, and here the tool's home on the web.

CA-TISCA Benchmarking Study

Almost four years since the California Transparency in Supply Chains Act's mandated disclosure provisions went into effect on January 1, 2012, in 2015 we individually assessed 1,504 qualifying companies’ statements against eight (8) compliance criteria based on the law’s core requirements (resulting in a compliance score), and seven (7) affirmative conduct indicators (yielding an affirmative conduct score).  In addition, the study collected 19 pertinent data points of interest per disclosure.  
Scrutinizing all pertinent corporate disclosures provided a first macro perspective not only of the compliance landscape but also the micro-level efforts companies are making to confront human trafficking and slavery-like practices in their supply chain.

  • Click here to download a copy of our 2015 Corporate Compliance with the California Transparency in Supply Chains Act of 2010 report.  

  • Here the 2015 report's press release. 

  • For a pdf with the legal compliance and affirmative conduct scores of all evaluated companies for 2015, click here.

  • For a searchable table of qualifying companies with their evaluation status, URL to statements and scores for 2015, click here.

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